IP - Internet Protocol
Internet Protocol Address is used to identify each host in the Internet. The protocol is the part of the TCP/IP Protocol suite and resides in the Internet layer. It is an unreliable, connectionless protocol that is always used with transmission control protocol (TCP), which is a connection-oriented protocol.
The Services Provides by the IP Protocol include:
- Addressing - IP Addresses are unique addresses which gets assigned to each system connected to the Internet. These addresses are used to identify each system on the internet.
- Routing - It is the responsibility of the network layer to handle the task of transferring the packets from source to destination, it is known as Routing.
- Fragmentation - IP fragments the datagram into certain pieces, according to the size which can be handled by the network.
There are 5 different classes of IP Addresses (IPv4) - Class A, B, C, D and E. Each class has different range of valid IP addresses:
Class A 126.96.36.199 to 188.8.131.52
Class B 184.108.40.206 to 220.127.116.11
Class C 18.104.22.168 to 22.214.171.124
Class D 126.96.36.199 to 188.8.131.52
Class E 240.0.0.0 to 254.255.255.254